One of the firsts things worthy of attention is that already in the 30s it was known that the machines have limits. Goedel in 1932 showed that, given any formal system, there are true statements who can not be proven with the logic rules of the system.
At that time, computers did not exist yet, but Alan Turing in 1936 had defined a machine model, since then called Turing’s machine, which is still today an abstract general model of a calculator. This machine receives its input in the form of a string of symbols on a tape, and the only operations it can do is to scroll the tape in both directions, read the cell of the tape on which it is positioned, and write this cell.
But in the same way as shown by Goedel for the mathematical formal systems, there are problems that a Turing machine can not solve, also demonstrating its limits. The same speech also applies totoday with our modern computers, we can see their limits every day.
The fundamental question is: Given that each machine has its limit, will we be able to build an intelligent machine?
Turing himself, in an attempt to answer this question, first tried to define what it means to say that a machine has intelligence. In his mind, a machine can be declared intelligent if it has a behavior that, seen by a human, is judged similar to that of another human. He put his idea into practice inventing a test that went down in history as “the touring test” of which we talk about in the next post. See ya 😉